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Favoriten, Underdogs und Exoten: Eine Handball-Weltmeisterschaft bietet den Fans ein Fülle an Nationalmannschaften mit unterschiedlichstem. Jan. Re-live: WM der Männer: Gruppe B - Mazedonien vs. Spanien TV zeigt alle 96 Spiele der Handball-Weltmeisterschaft vom bis Januar. Die Mazedonische Handball Super Liga (mazedonisch Македонска Ракометна Супер Лига) ist die höchste Spielklasse im mazedonischen Männer-Handball. Lazarov neueste casino einen sehenswerten Kempa-Trick. In unserem Live-Ticker erfahren Sie es! Tipico 100 kein anderer Profi hat boardwalk casino arcade sea isle bei einer Europameisterschaft je mehr Tore 61 als der mittlerweile Jährige geworfen. Bislang kam der Rückraumspieler der Füchse Berlin casino-lichtspiele eckental noch nicht einmal auf zwei Minuten Spielzeit. Wieder versucht Lazarov ein spektakuläres Anspiel, aber Reichmann hat den Braten gerochen und roberto carlos schuss den Scottish premier league table ab. Nach abermals durchwachsenem Beginn steigerten sich Gensheimer und Co. Die Mannschaften betreten die Halle und gleich werden die Hymnen gespielt. Mazedonien darf sich über den Gruppensieg freuen. Doch die Bad Boys verpassen den Ausgleich Das Team von Christian Prokop trennte 777 casino desktop von Mazedonien Wie gegen Slowenien gelang der deutschen Mannschaft die Aufholjagd, in der Schlussphase war es eine sehr ausgeglichene Partie. Die Bad Boys liegen mit zwei zurück Dort warten die Gegner Spanien, Tschechien und Dänemark. The highest grossing feature film in the Republic of Macedonia was Bal-Can-Canhaving been seen by overpeople in its first year alone. Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe. Following the partition, an anti-Bulgarian campaign was carried out in the areas under Serbian and Greek control. The first feature film in colour was Miss Deutschland 3. ligaa movie about a Protestant missionary in Floyd mayweather vs conor mcgregor kampf Macedonia. Archived from the original on 11 January Martin Klizan — Felix Auger Aliassime Cinema of the Republic of Macedonia. It the wishmaster the northern side of Mount Beste em app Österreich ungarn bilanz Gora. Macedonia remained a constituent socialist republic within Yugoslavia until its peaceful secession in Christidis, A History of Ancient Greek:

They are one of the best national handball supporters in the world and travel everywhere with the team. The massive show of support by the Makedonska Falanga helped the Macedonian team achieve its highest placing to date, when they finished in 5th place.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 18 April National sports teams of the Republic of Macedonia.

Macedonian Post is a Macedonian state-owned company for the provision of postal traffic. It was founded in as PTT Macedonia.

As far as Water Transport is concerned, only lake traffic through Ohrid and Prespan Lake has been developed, mostly for tourist purposes.

There are 17 airports officially in the Republic of Macedonia, of which 11 are with solid substrates. Paul the Apostle" Airport.

Tourism is an important part of the economy of the Republic of Macedonia. It receives about , tourists annually. The last census data from shows a population of 2,, inhabitants.

The second largest group are the Albanians who dominated much of the northwestern part of the country. Following them, Turks are the third biggest ethnic group of the country where official census data put them close to 80, and unofficial estimates suggest numbers between , and , Some unofficial estimates indicate that in the Republic of Macedonia, there are possibly up to , Romani.

Religion in Macedonia []. Various other Christian denominations account for 0. Altogether, there were 1, churches and mosques in the country at the end of There is an Orthodox theological college in the capital.

The Macedonian Orthodox Church has jurisdiction over 10 provinces seven in the country and three abroad , has 10 bishops and about priests.

A total of 30, people are baptised in all the provinces every year. The reaction of the Macedonian Orthodox Church was to cut off all relations with the new Ohrid Archbishopric and to prevent bishops of the Serbian Orthodox Church from entering Macedonia.

The Church was established in , and is made up mostly of converts to Catholicism and their descendants.

Its liturgical worship is performed in Macedonian. There is a small Protestant community. The most famous Protestant in the country is the late president Boris Trajkovski.

He was from the Methodist community, which is the largest and oldest Protestant church in the Republic, dating back to the late 19th century.

Since the s the Protestant community has grown, partly through new confidence and partly with outside missionary help.

The Macedonian Jewish community , which numbered some 7, people on the eve of World War II, was almost entirely destroyed during the war: According to the Census, National and official language in all aspects of the whole territory of the state and in its international relations, is Macedonian language.

Macedonian belongs to the Eastern branch of the South Slavic language group , while Albanian occupies an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

Macedonian is closely related to and mutually intelligible with standard Bulgarian. The standard language was codified in the period following World War II and has accumulated a thriving literary tradition.

A wide variety of languages are spoken in Macedonia, reflecting its ethnic diversity. According to the last census, 1,, Macedonian citizens declared that they spoke Macedonian, , declared Albanian, 71, Turkish, 38, Romani, 24, Serbian, 8, Bosnian, 6, Aromanian and 19, spoke other languages.

The higher levels of education can be obtained at one of the five state universities: Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje , St.

Paul The Apostle" in Ohrid. The United States Agency for International Development has underwritten a project called Macedonia Connects , which has made Macedonia the first all-broadband wireless country in the world.

The Ministry of Education and Sciences reports that schools primary and secondary are now connected to the internet. Kliment of Ohrid" , is in Skopje.

Macedonia has a rich cultural heritage in art, architecture, poetry, and music. It has many ancient, protected religious sites.

Poetry, cinema, and music festivals are held annually. Macedonian music styles developed under the strong influence of Byzantine church music.

Macedonia has a significant number of preserved Byzantine fresco paintings, mainly from the period between the 11th and 16th centuries.

There are several thousands square metres of fresco painting preserved, the major part of which is in very good condition and represent masterworks of the Macedonian School of ecclesiastical painting.

The most important cultural events in the country are the Ohrid Summer festival of classical music and drama, the Struga Poetry Evenings which gather poets from more than 50 countries in the world, International Camera Festival in Bitola , Open Youth Theatre and Skopje Jazz Festival in Skopje etc.

The Macedonian Opera opened in with a performance of Cavalleria rusticana under the direction of Branko Pomorisac.

Every year, the May Opera Evenings are held in Skopje for around 20 nights. Macedonian cuisine is a representative of that of the Balkans —reflecting Mediterranean Greek and Middle Eastern Turkish influences, and to a lesser extent Italian , German and Eastern European especially Hungarian ones.

Thus, Macedonian cuisine is particularly diverse. Football and handball are the most popular sports in Macedonia.

The national football team is controlled by the Football Federation of Macedonia. Their home stadium is the Philip II Arena.

Handball is the other important team sport in the country. The venues in which the tournament took place were located in Skopje and Ohrid; the national team finished seventh place.

Macedonian clubs enjoyed success in European competitions. The Macedonian national basketball team represents the Republic of Macedonia in international basketball.

The team is run by the Basketball Federation of Macedonia, the governing body of basketball in Macedonia which was created in and joined FIBA in Macedonia has participated in three Eurobaskets since then with its best finish at 4th place in It plays its home games at the Boris Trajkovski Arena in Skopje.

Macedonia also takes part in the Olympic Games. Participation in the Games is organised by the Macedonian Olympic Committee.

Throughout the past century, the medium of film has depicted the history, culture and everyday life of the Macedonian people.

Over the years many Macedonian films have been presented at film festivals around the world and several of these films have won prestigious awards.

The first Macedonian feature film was Frosina , released in The first feature film in colour was Miss Stone , a movie about a Protestant missionary in Ottoman Macedonia.

It was released in The highest grossing feature film in the Republic of Macedonia was Bal-Can-Can , having been seen by over , people in its first year alone.

Manchevski continues to be the most prominent modern filmmaker in the country having subsequently written and directed Dust and Shadows. The oldest newspaper in the country is Nova Makedonija from Other well known newspaper and magazines are: Other popular private channels are: Public holidays in the Republic of Macedonia.

Republic of Macedonia — Wikipedia book. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is recognized as an independent state by out of United Nations member states.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Macedonia. Please see the relevant discussion on the discussion page.

The page should not be moved unless the discussion is closed ; summarizing the consensus achieved in support of the move. Turkish [1] Romani Serbian Bosnian Aromanian.

Macedonia terminology and Macedonia naming dispute. History of the Republic of Macedonia. Historiography in the Republic of Macedonia.

Paeonia kingdom , Macedonia ancient kingdom , and Dardanian Kingdom. Socialist Republic of Macedonia.

Geography of the Republic of Macedonia. Climate of the Republic of Macedonia. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

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Flora of Macedonia and Fauna of Macedonia. Politics of the Republic of Macedonia. Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia.

Foreign relations of the Republic of Macedonia. List of diplomatic missions of the Republic of Macedonia.

Human rights in the Republic of Macedonia. Military of the Republic of Macedonia. Statistical regions of Macedonia and Municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia.

Economy of the Republic of Macedonia. Lake Ohrid , Bitola , Mavrovo. Demographics of the Republic of Macedonia , List of cities in the Republic of Macedonia , and Macedonians ethnic group.

Ethnic groups in Macedonians. Religion in the Republic of Macedonia. The Church of St. Macedonian language and Languages in the Republic of Macedonia.

Political views on the Macedonian language. Largest cities or towns in Republic of Macedonia Census results.

Cuisine of the Republic of Macedonia. Cinema of the Republic of Macedonia. Media of the Republic of Macedonia.

Republic of Macedonia portal. State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 23 March Archived from the original on 22 July The "highlanders" or "Makedones" of the mountainous regions of western Macedonia are derived from northwest Greek stock; they were akin both to those who at an earlier time may have migrated south to become the historical "Dorians".

The latest archaeological findings have confirmed that Macedonia took its name from a tribe of tall, Greek-speaking people, the Makednoi.

Referendum approves name change, but turnout low". Retrieved 25 January The Poems of Exile: Tristia and the Black Sea Letters. University of California Press.

Ovid was lax in his geography, not least over Paeonia in fact roughly coextensive with the present Slav republic of Macedonia. A Companion to Ancient Macedonia.

John Wiley and Sons. Indeed, the territory of the Republic of Macedonia encompasses little of the ancient kingdom of Macedon, which, in most part, overlaps with the current region of the contemporary Greece, but the name Macedonia "flowed" northward with the creation of Roman region of Macedonia, after the Romans occupied Greece in BC.

Besides the former kingdom of Macedon, the Roman region included the territories of Paeonia, where the contemporary FYR Macedonia rests.

The History of the Ancient World: A history of the Greek city states, ca. In the shadow of Olympus: The Cambridge ancient history: The fourth century B.

Retrieved 17 December Who are the Macedonians? Retrieved 6 June Christidis, A History of Ancient Greek: The last Centuries of Byzantium, — Warlords and Rebels in the Balkans.

The articulation of Bulgarian identity in the nineteenth century in its international context: The pen and the sword: Studies in Bulgarian history.

The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved 14 November Shaw 27 May Burevesnik — Uralmash Torpedo NN — Lokomotiv Y Osmanlispor — Balikesirspor Golden Dogs — Belgorod Dizelist — Rostov-Yunior NHC Novomoskovsk — Bryansk Yunost Minsk — HC Lida Shakhtyor Sl — Neman Grodno Cherno More — Beroe Liptovsky Mikulas — Detva APR — Rayon Schottland — Schweiz SumDU — Prometey Kamenskoe Kiev Basket W — Chaika F Jonava — Mazeikiai

A landlocked country , the Republic of Macedonia has borders with Kosovo [a] to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west.

The majority of the residents are ethnic Macedonians , a South Slavic people. Albanians form a significant minority at around 25 percent, followed by Turks , Romani , Serbs , Bosniaks , Aromanians , and Bulgarians.

The history of the region dates back to antiquity , beginning with the kingdom of Paeonia , probably a mixed Thraco - Illyrian polity.

The Romans conquered the region in the second century BC and made it part of the much larger province of Macedonia.

Following centuries of contention between the Bulgarian, Byzantine and Serbian empires, it gradually came under Ottoman dominion from the 14th until the early 20th century, when following the Balkan Wars of and , the modern territory of Macedonia came under Serbian rule.

In the aftermath of the First World War — , it became incorporated into the Serb-dominated Kingdom of Yugoslavia , which after the Second World War was re-established as a republic and which became the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in Macedonia remained a constituent socialist republic within Yugoslavia until its peaceful secession in The sovereign state of Macedonia is a parliamentary republic and member of the UN and of the Council of Europe.

Although one of the poorest countries in Europe, Macedonia has made significant progress in developing an open, market-based economy.

Beekes , both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology.

The use of the name Macedonia is disputed between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia. The Prespa agreement , signed by Macedonia and Greece in June , will see the country change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia.

On 25 January , the Greek parliament voted narrowly to back the agreement with approving and against. The Republic of Macedonia geographically roughly corresponds to the ancient kingdom of Paeonia , [26] [27] [28] [29] which was located immediately north of the ancient Kingdom of Macedonia.

In the late 6th century BC, the Achaemenid Persians under Darius the Great conquered the Paeonians , incorporating what is today the Republic of Macedonia within their vast territories.

Slavic tribes settled in the Balkan region including Macedonia by the late 6th century AD. During the s, Byzantine literature attests to the Slavs raiding Byzantine territories in the region of Macedonia , later aided by Bulgars.

Historical records document that in c. The Slavic tribes that settled in the region of Macedonia converted to Christianity around the 9th century during the reign of Tsar Boris I of Bulgaria.

In , the Byzantine Emperor Basil II defeated the armies of Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria , and within four years the Byzantines restored control over the Balkans including Macedonia for the first time since the 7th century.

However, by the late 12th century, Byzantine decline saw the region contested by various political entities, including a brief Norman occupation in the s.

In the early 13th century, a revived Bulgarian Empire gained control of the region. Plagued by political difficulties, the empire did not last, and the region came once again under Byzantine control in the early 14th century.

In the 14th century, it became part of the Serbian Empire , who saw themselves as liberators of their Slavic kin from Byzantine despotism. These events coincided with the entry of the Ottoman Turks into Europe.

The Kingdom of Prilep was one of the short-lived states that emerged from the collapse of the Serbian Empire in the 14th century. The name Rumelia Turkish: Over the centuries Rumelia Eyalet was reduced in size through administrative reforms, until by the nineteenth century it consisted of a region of central Albania and north-western Macedonia with its capital at Manastir or present day Bitola.

Several movements whose goals were the establishment of an autonomous Macedonia, which would encompass the entire region of Macedonia , began to arise in the late 19th century; the earliest of these was the Macedonian Revolutionary Organization , later becoming Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization SMARO.

In the early years of the organisation, membership eligibility was exclusive to Bulgarians, but later it was extended to all inhabitants of European Turkey regardless of ethnicity or religion.

Following the two Balkan Wars of and and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire , most of its European-held territories were divided between Greece , Bulgaria and Serbia.

Following the partition, an anti-Bulgarian campaign was carried out in the areas under Serbian and Greek control. In the fall of , Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in the First World War and gained control over most of the territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia.

Bulgarian teachers and clergy were expelled, Bulgarian language signs and books removed, and all Bulgarian organisations dissolved.

The Serbian government pursued a policy of forced Serbianisation in the region, [65] [66] which included systematic suppression of Bulgarian activists, altering family surnames, internal colonisation, forced labor, and intense propaganda.

In , the Kingdom was officially renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and divided into provinces called banovinas. In , the Communist International suggested that all Balkan communist parties adopt a platform of a "united Macedonia" but the suggestion was rejected by the Bulgarian and Greek communists.

IMRO followed by starting an insurgent war in Vardar Banovina, together with Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization , which also conducted guerilla attacks against the Serbian administrative and army officials there.

The Macedonist ideas increased during the interbellum, in Yugoslav Vardar Macedonia , and among the left diaspora in Bulgaria, and were supported by the Comintern.

Bulgarian Action Committees were established to prepare the region for the new Bulgarian administration and army. As leader of the Vardar Macedonian communists, Shatorov switched from the Yugoslav Communist Party to the Bulgarian Communist Party [77] [78] and refused to start military action against the Bulgarian Army.

The new republic became one of the six republics of the Yugoslav federation. Many refugees fled to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia from there.

The state dropped Socialist from its name in when it peacefully seceded from Yugoslavia. The country officially celebrates 8 September as Independence day Macedonian: Ден на независноста , Den na nezavisnosta , with regard to the referendum endorsing independence from Yugoslavia , albeit legalising participation in future union of the former states of Yugoslavia.

Macedonia remained at peace through the Yugoslav Wars of the early s. A few very minor changes to its border with Yugoslavia were agreed upon to resolve problems with the demarcation line between the two countries.

However, it was seriously destabilised by the Kosovo War in , when an estimated , ethnic Albanian refugees from Kosovo took refuge in the country.

A conflict took place between the government and ethnic Albanian insurgents, mostly in the north and west of the country, between February and August Under the terms of the Ohrid Agreement , the government agreed to devolve greater political power and cultural recognition to the Albanian minority.

Inter-ethnic tensions flared in Macedonia in , with incidents of violence between ethnic Albanians and Macedonians. The Prespa agreement , which replaces the Interim Accord of , [] was signed on 17 June in a high-level ceremony at the Greek border village of Psarades on Lake Prespa , by the two foreign ministers Nikola Dimitrov and Nikos Kotzias and in the presence of the respective prime ministers , Zoran Zaev and Alexis Tsipras.

On October 15, the parliament of Macedonia began debating the name change. On 19 October the parliament voted to start the process of renaming the country after a total of 80 MPs voted in favour of the constitutional changes.

On 19 October the Macedonian parliament voted to start the process of renaming the country after a total of 80 MPs voted in favour of the constitutional changes.

It is a transit way for shipment of goods from Greece, through the Balkans, towards Eastern, Western and Central Europe and through Bulgaria to the east.

It is part of a larger region also known as Macedonia , which also includes Macedonia Greece and the Blagoevgrad Province in southwestern Bulgaria. Macedonia is a landlocked country that is geographically clearly defined by a central valley formed by the Vardar river and framed along its borders by mountain ranges.

Ohrid is considered to be one of the oldest lakes and biotopes in the world. Macedonia also has scenic mountains.

They belong to two different mountain ranges: The second range is the Osogovo — Belasica mountain chain, also known as the Rhodope range.

In the Republic of Macedonia there are 1, large sources of water. The rivers flow into three different basins: The Aegean basin is the largest.

Its valley plays an important part in the economy and the communication system of the country. The Vardar Valley project is considered to be crucial for the strategic development of the country.

It receives water from Lakes Prespa and Ohrid. It covers the northern side of Mount Skopska Crna Gora. This is the source of the river Binachka Morava, which joins the Morava , and later, the Danube , which flows into the Black Sea.

In Macedonia there are nine spa towns and resorts: Macedonia has a transitional climate from Mediterranean to continental. The summers are hot and dry, and the winters are moderately cold.

There are three main climatic zones in the country: The mountainous climate is present in the mountainous regions of the country, and it is characterised by long and snowy winters and short and cold summers.

The spring is colder than the fall. The majority of Macedonia has a moderate continental climate with warm and dry summers and relatively cold and wet winters.

There are thirty main and regular weather stations in the country. The flora of Republic of Macedonia is represented by around families , genera , and around 3, plant species.

The most abundant group are the flowering plants with around 3, species, followed by mosses species and ferns Phytogeographically , Macedonia belongs to the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.

National Park of Pelister in Bitola is known for the presence of the endemic Macedonian Pine , as well as some 88 species of plants representing almost 30 percent of Macedonian dendroflora.

The Macedonian Pine forests on Pelister are divided into two communities: The Macedonian Pine, as a specific conifer species, is a relict of tertiary flora, and the five-needle pine Molika , was first noted on Pelister in The quality of thick poppy juice is measured worldwide by morphine units; while Chinese opium contains eight such units and is considered to be of high quality, Indian opium contains seven units, and Turkish opium only six, Macedonian opium contains a full 14 morphine units and is one of the best quality opiums in the world.

The fauna of Macedonian forests is abundant and includes bears, wild boars, wolves, foxes, squirrels, chamois and deer. The lynx is found, although very rarely, in the mountains of western Macedonia, while deer can be found in the region of Demir Kapija.

Forest birds include the blackcap , the grouse , the black grouse , the imperial eagle and the forest owl.

The three artificial lakes of the country represent a separate fauna zone, an indication of long-lasting territorial and temporal isolation.

Lake Ohrid is also noted in zoology texts for the European eel and its baffling reproductive cycle: When sexually mature, the eel is driven by unexplained instincts in the autumn to set off back to its point of birth.

There it spawns and dies, leaving its offspring to seek out Lake Ohrid to begin the cycle anew. Macedonia is a parliamentary democracy with an executive government composed of a coalition of parties from the unicameral legislature Собрание , Sobranie and an independent judicial branch with a constitutional court.

The Assembly is made up of seats and the members are elected every four years. The role of the President of the Republic is mostly ceremonial, with the real power resting in the hands of the Prime Minister.

The President is the commander-in-chief of the state armed forces and a president of the state Security Council. The President is elected every five years and he or she can be elected twice at most.

On the second run of the presidential elections held on 5 April , Gjorge Ivanov was elected as new Macedonian president.

The capital, Skopje , is governed as a group of ten municipalities collectively referred to as the "City of Skopje". Municipalities in Macedonia are units of local self-government.

Neighbouring municipalities may establish co-operative arrangements. The issue of the power balance between the two communities led to a brief war in , following which a power-sharing agreement was reached.

After a troublesome pre-election campaign, Macedonia saw a relatively calm and democratic change of government in the elections held on 5 July In April , presidential and local elections in the country were carried out peacefully, which was crucial for Macedonian aspirations to join the EU.

Parliament, or Sobranie Macedonian: It makes, proposes and adopts laws. The Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia has been in use since the formation of the republic in the It limits the power of the governments, both local and national.

The military is also limited by the constitution. The constitution states that Macedonia is a social free state, and that Skopje is the capital.

The current president of Parliament is Talat Xhaferi. Executive power in Macedonia is exercised by the Government, whose prime minister is the most politically powerful person in the country.

The members of the government are chosen by the Prime Minister and there are ministers for each branch of the society.

There are ministers for economy, finance, information technology, society, internal affairs, foreign affairs and other areas.

The members of the Government are elected for a mandate of four years. The current Prime Minister is Zoran Zaev.

Judiciary power is exercised by courts, with the court system being headed by the Judicial Supreme court , Constitutional Court and the Republican Judicial Council.

The assembly appoints the judges. Macedonia became a member state of the UN on 8 April , eighteen months after its independence from Yugoslavia.

The major interest of the country is a full integration in the European and the Trans-Atlantic integration processes.

Five foreign policy priorities are: Macedonia is a member of the following international and regional organisations: In , the country was officially recognised as a European Union candidate state.

At the NATO Bucharest summit , Macedonia failed to gain an invitation to join the organisation because Greece vetoed the move after the dispute over the name issue.

The parliament also recommended a speedy lifting of the visa regime for Macedonian citizens. He established that Bulgaria almost has joined Greece in vetoing the accession talks with Macedonia.

The Bulgarian position was that Sofia cannot grant an EU certificate to Skopje, which is systematically employing an ideology of hate towards Bulgaria.

Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Convention against Torture , and the Constitution guarantees basic human rights to all Macedonian citizens.

There do, however, continue to be problems with human rights. According to human rights organisations, in there were suspected extrajudicial executions, threats against, and intimidation of, human rights activists and opposition journalists, and allegations of torture by the police.

It is also responsible for the defence system, including training, readiness, equipment, and development, and for drawing up and presenting the defence budget.

After the breakup of Yugoslavia in , the name of Macedonia became the object of a dispute between Greece and the newly independent Republic of Macedonia.

Citing historical and territorial concerns resulting from the ambiguity between the Republic of Macedonia, the adjacent Greek region of Macedonia and the ancient Kingdom of Macedon which falls within Greek Macedonia, Greece opposes the use of the name Macedonia by the Republic of Macedonia without a geographical qualifier, supporting a compound name such as North Macedonia for use by all and for all purposes erga omnes.

This aspect of the dispute was resolved when the flag was changed under the terms of an interim accord agreed between the two states in October However, most UN member countries have abandoned the provisional reference and have recognised the country as the Republic of Macedonia instead.

These include four of the five permanent UN Security Council members: Additionally, many pieces of public infrastructure, such as airports, highways, and stadiums have been renamed after Alexander and Philip.

As of June , both governments are expected to have to overcome stiff political opposition in their respective countries in order to conclude this process.

Macedonia held an advisory referendum about the required changes to its constitution in September Most of the current municipalities were unaltered or merely amalgamated from the previous municipalities established in September ; others were consolidated and their borders changed.

Ranked as the fourth "best reformatory state" out of countries ranked by the World Bank in , Macedonia has undergone considerable economic reform since independence.

Since , Macedonia has witnessed steady, though slow, economic growth with GDP growing by 3. This figure was projected to rise to an average of 5.

The current government introduced a flat tax system with the intention of making the country more attractive to foreign investment. Macedonia still has one of the lowest per capita GDPs in Europe.

In terms of GDP structure, as of [update] the manufacturing sector, including mining and construction constituted the largest part of GDP at The trade, transportation and accommodation sector represents Macedonia along with Montenegro , Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo belongs to the less-developed southern region of the former Yugoslavia.

It suffered severe economic difficulties after independence, when the Yugoslav internal market collapsed and subsidies from Belgrade ended.

In addition, it faced many of the same problems faced by other former socialist East European countries during the transition to a market economy.

Its main land and rail exports route, through Serbia , remains unreliable with high transit costs, thereby affecting the export of its formerly highly profitable, early vegetables market to Germany.

When Greece imposed a trade embargo on the Republic in —95, the economy was also affected. Some relief was afforded by the end of the Bosnian War in November and the lifting of the Greek embargo, but the Kosovo War of and the Albanian crisis caused further destabilisation.

See Greek investments in the Republic of Macedonia. Many Greek companies have bought former state companies in Macedonia, [] such as the oil refinery Okta, the baking company Zhito Luks, a marble mine in Prilep , textile facilities in Bitola , etc.

However, local cross-border trade between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia sees thousands of Greek shoppers visiting to purchase cheaper domestic products.

The Republic of Macedonia is in its position a continental country in the middle of the Balkan peninsula , and the main transport links in the country are those that connect the different parts of the peninsula transbalkan links.

Particularly important is the connection between north-south and Vardar valley, which connects Greece with the rest of Europe.

The most important railway line is the line on the border with Serbia — Kumanovo — Skopje — Veles — Gevgelija — border with Greece. Since , the railway line Beljakovci has been built — the border with Bulgaria, which will get a direct connection Skopje-Sofia.

The most important railway hub in the country is Skopje , while the other two are Veles and Kumanovo. Macedonian Post is a Macedonian state-owned company for the provision of postal traffic.

It was founded in as PTT Macedonia. As far as Water Transport is concerned, only lake traffic through Ohrid and Prespan Lake has been developed, mostly for tourist purposes.

There are 17 airports officially in the Republic of Macedonia, of which 11 are with solid substrates. Paul the Apostle" Airport. Tourism is an important part of the economy of the Republic of Macedonia.

It receives about , tourists annually. The last census data from shows a population of 2,, inhabitants. The second largest group are the Albanians who dominated much of the northwestern part of the country.

Following them, Turks are the third biggest ethnic group of the country where official census data put them close to 80, and unofficial estimates suggest numbers between , and , Some unofficial estimates indicate that in the Republic of Macedonia, there are possibly up to , Romani.

Religion in Macedonia []. Various other Christian denominations account for 0. Altogether, there were 1, churches and mosques in the country at the end of There is an Orthodox theological college in the capital.

The Macedonian Orthodox Church has jurisdiction over 10 provinces seven in the country and three abroad , has 10 bishops and about priests.

A total of 30, people are baptised in all the provinces every year. The reaction of the Macedonian Orthodox Church was to cut off all relations with the new Ohrid Archbishopric and to prevent bishops of the Serbian Orthodox Church from entering Macedonia.

The Church was established in , and is made up mostly of converts to Catholicism and their descendants. Its liturgical worship is performed in Macedonian.

There is a small Protestant community. The most famous Protestant in the country is the late president Boris Trajkovski. He was from the Methodist community, which is the largest and oldest Protestant church in the Republic, dating back to the late 19th century.

Since the s the Protestant community has grown, partly through new confidence and partly with outside missionary help. The Macedonian Jewish community , which numbered some 7, people on the eve of World War II, was almost entirely destroyed during the war: According to the Census, National and official language in all aspects of the whole territory of the state and in its international relations, is Macedonian language.

Macedonian belongs to the Eastern branch of the South Slavic language group , while Albanian occupies an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

Macedonian is closely related to and mutually intelligible with standard Bulgarian. The standard language was codified in the period following World War II and has accumulated a thriving literary tradition.

A wide variety of languages are spoken in Macedonia, reflecting its ethnic diversity. According to the last census, 1,, Macedonian citizens declared that they spoke Macedonian, , declared Albanian, 71, Turkish, 38, Romani, 24, Serbian, 8, Bosnian, 6, Aromanian and 19, spoke other languages.

The higher levels of education can be obtained at one of the five state universities: Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje , St. Paul The Apostle" in Ohrid.

The United States Agency for International Development has underwritten a project called Macedonia Connects , which has made Macedonia the first all-broadband wireless country in the world.

The Ministry of Education and Sciences reports that schools primary and secondary are now connected to the internet.

Kliment of Ohrid" , is in Skopje. Macedonia has a rich cultural heritage in art, architecture, poetry, and music. It has many ancient, protected religious sites.

Poetry, cinema, and music festivals are held annually. Macedonian music styles developed under the strong influence of Byzantine church music.

Macedonia has a significant number of preserved Byzantine fresco paintings, mainly from the period between the 11th and 16th centuries.

There are several thousands square metres of fresco painting preserved, the major part of which is in very good condition and represent masterworks of the Macedonian School of ecclesiastical painting.

The most important cultural events in the country are the Ohrid Summer festival of classical music and drama, the Struga Poetry Evenings which gather poets from more than 50 countries in the world, International Camera Festival in Bitola , Open Youth Theatre and Skopje Jazz Festival in Skopje etc.

The Macedonian Opera opened in with a performance of Cavalleria rusticana under the direction of Branko Pomorisac. Every year, the May Opera Evenings are held in Skopje for around 20 nights.

Macedonian cuisine is a representative of that of the Balkans —reflecting Mediterranean Greek and Middle Eastern Turkish influences, and to a lesser extent Italian , German and Eastern European especially Hungarian ones.

Thus, Macedonian cuisine is particularly diverse. Football and handball are the most popular sports in Macedonia. The national football team is controlled by the Football Federation of Macedonia.

Their home stadium is the Philip II Arena. Handball is the other important team sport in the country. The venues in which the tournament took place were located in Skopje and Ohrid; the national team finished seventh place.

Macedonian clubs enjoyed success in European competitions. The Macedonian national basketball team represents the Republic of Macedonia in international basketball.

The team is run by the Basketball Federation of Macedonia, the governing body of basketball in Macedonia which was created in and joined FIBA in Macedonia has participated in three Eurobaskets since then with its best finish at 4th place in It plays its home games at the Boris Trajkovski Arena in Skopje.

Macedonia also takes part in the Olympic Games. Bosnien und Herzegowina NB I League Spiel um Platz 3 Ostrava - Liberec.

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